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Ballistics

Ballistics are an important part of Escape from Tarkov. They play a big role in firefights and often determine the outcomes. Choosing the right weapon, ammo and gear is one of the most important parts in coming out on top of fighting.

Flight ballistics

Bullet flight is simulated realistically in Escape from Tarkov. Bullets have speed, are affected by gravity and air friction and can penetrate or ricochet when hitting objects, and even fragment when doing so. The specific flight characteristics of a bullet is determined by the ammo type, and the chance of a bullet penetrating or ricocheting off of an object is determined by the material of the object and the type of bullet. Bullets also lose both damage and penetration power as they lose speed from air friction over long distances.

Terminal ballistics

Escape from Tarkov also simulates damage to the body and body armor. Damage is dealt to a human body at the point of impact, damaging that limb or body part. Bullets are capable of penetrating walls or even limbs and hitting multiple body parts that way. Bullets can also fragment when penetrating a player's body, dealing 50% bonus damage to that limb. The damage dealt by a bullet is based only on the bullet itself, and not by the gun it was fired from. Armor protection is also simulated realistically, stopping bullets entirely instead of providing a damage reduction like in most games.

Armor and penetration

Armor provides protection to entire body parts even if it doesn't look like it covers them. You can see what parts of the body are protected when you inspect the armor. When your body is hit, if that body part that was hit (or head zone) has body armor or a helmet protecting it, the game checks to see if the bullet penetrates or doesn’t.

The penetration chance of a bullet hitting armor is calculated based on the armor’s level, the armor’s remaining durability %, and the ammo’s penetration value. The chance is then rolled to determine whether or not the bullet penetrates.

If the bullet penetrates, it deals between 0% and 40% less damage based on an algorithm that uses the bullet’s pen value and the armor’s class and durability %. There is a strong correlation between the penetration chance the penetrating round had, and the damage reduction applied to it: The higher the chance the less damage reduction, with high armor classes and high pen values of ammo having lower reductions than others. Most penetrations will be around 20% damage reduction when a bullet starts to penetrate an armor, but things like a PACA vs m995 will result in 0% reduction.

If the bullet does not penetrate, “blunt damage” is applied, which lets through a % of the base damage of the bullet to the body part hit. This % is based on the specific armor’s “blunt throughput” stat, the pen value of the ammo, and the armor’s class and remaining durability %. Blunt damage is extremely low and not a notable factor in kill speed against anything other than level 2 body armors.

Durability

Durability of armor is important, the lower the current % of durability remaining the less protection the armor offers overall. The durability % is calculated by dividing the current durability of the armor by the original maximum durability of the armor. As an example a 60/60 repaired LBT 6094A Slick Plate Carrier armor is calculated as 60/80, or 75%.

The durability damage taken from bullets is based on the penetration value of the ammo and the armor level of the armor, multiplied by the ammo’s armor damage % and the armor material’s destructibility %. The minimum durability damage armor can take from a single hit is 1, including from individual buckshot pellets. Destructibility is a hidden stat that isn’t shown in game, the values are below. A penetrating round does a little bit less durability damage to armor than a round that does not penetrate. It varies, but is usually around 10-15% less.

Material Destructibility Explosive Destructibility
Aramid 0.25 0.2
UHMWPE 0.45 0.4
Combined Materials 0.5 0.4
Titan 0.55 0.5
Aluminium 0.6 0.6
Steel 0.7 0.6
Ceramic 0.8 0.7
Glass 0.8 0.8

If you want to find the effective durability of different armor to compare how durable different armors are, use the following formula: EffectiveDurability = Durability ÷ Destructibility In the above example EffectiveDurability =0.75/0.6=1.25 which means it can still have more than it's maximum durability (100 hitpoints).

Hitboxes and armor protection

Hitboxes are always the same, whether you’re clad in armor or completely naked, they never change in size or shape. Armor simply provides it’s protection to specific hitboxes and head “zones”, and when those hitboxes are struck by a bullet the armor protects them. So no matter what armor you’re wearing they always provide the same area of protection to whatever body parts they say they protect on their inspection screen. So don’t be fooled by what an armor looks like, check the protection zones to see what it actually protects.

Angles and ricochets

The angle of impact has no effect on armor except for helmets, which bullets can ricochet off of. If a bullet strikes a helmet within a certain range of angles, the round has a chance to ricochet determined by how shallow the angle is as well as the ricochet chance of the helmet. The required angles and the ricochet chance is determined by the helmet and is different for each individual helmet. If a ricochet occurs it is the same as the helmet stopping the penetration as far as the penetration calculation is concerned, and blunt damage and durability damage continue as they would normally, however the health and durability damage is significantly lowered to the point that there is almost no blunt damage received and the helmet almost always takes the minimum durability damage, which is 1.

You can read an even more in-depth summary of all armor-related mechanics on NoFoodAfterMidnight's blog here.

Armor penetration tables

How to read

Effectiveness level Average amount of bullets stopped Explanation
0 Pointless 20+ Can't penetrate in any reasonable amount of hits
1 It's possible, but... 13 to 20 Typically doesn't penetrate at all for a large number of hits, or starts with a very low chance and barely increases
2 Magdump only 9 to 13 Has a very low or no penetration chance initially and very slowly gains chance
3 Slightly effective 5 to 9 Has a low penetration chance initially and slowly gains chance, or quickly damages armor until it penetrates
4 Effective 3 to 5 Starts with a low-medium penetration chance but quickly increases
5 Very effective 1 to 3 Penetrates a large percent of the time initially, often quickly going to >90%
6 Basically ignores <1 Initially penetrates >80% of the time

Table

*Currently, there is a bug where the projectiles do not fragment below 20 penetration power, regardless of the specified fragmentation chance.

**Assuming all projectiles hit the target on every shot. Because each projectile causes a minimum of 1 durability loss to armor, it becomes effective at breaking down armor and eventually penetrating.

***This has an explosion radius like grenades which does most (all) of the damage

'T' Denotes Round is a Tracer

'S' Denotes Round is Subsonic

Rifle Rounds: Pistol/SMG/PDW Rounds: Shotgun Rounds:
Other:
Bleed % Bullet effectiveness against armor class
Caliber Name Damage Penetration
power
Armor
damage %
Accuracy
%
Recoil
%
Frag.
chance*
L. H. 1 2 3 4 5 6
 
12x70mm 12/70 5.25mm Buckshot** S 8x37 1 15 0% 3 3 3 3 3 3
12/70 8.5mm "Magnum" Buckshot** 8x50 2 26 -15 +115 0% 20% 10% 3 3 3 3 3 3
12/70 6.5mm Express buckshot** 9x35 3 26 +15 0% 3 3 3 3 3 3
12/70 7mm buckshot** 8x39 3 26 0% 3 3 3 3 3 3
12/70 Flechette** S 8x25 31 26 -10 0% 6 6 6 5 5 5
12/70 RIP 265 2 11 +80 +35 100% 40% 20% 0 0 0 0 0 0
12/70 SuperFormance HP Slug 220 5 12 +170 -15 39% 30% 30% 0 0 0 0 0 0
12/70 Grizzly 40 Slug 190 12 48 +80 +20 12% 6 2 0 0 0 0
12/70 Copper Sabot Premier HP Slug 206 14 46 +150 +10 38% 30% 20% 6 3 1 0 0 0
12/70 Lead slug 167 15 55 +120 20% 10% 6 4 1 0 0 0
12/70 "Poleva-3" Slug 140 17 40 +110 -15 20% 6 5 1 0 0 0
12/70 Dual Sabot Slug 2x85 17 65 +100 +15 10% 6 5 2 0 0 0
12/70 FTX Custom Lite Slug 183 20 50 +135 -25 10% 6 6 2 0 0 0
12/70 "Poleva-6u" Slug 150 20 50 +115 -10 15% 6 6 2 0 0 0
12/70 shell with .50 BMG bullet T 197 26 57 +90 +25 5% 6 6 5 3 1 0
12/70 AP-20 Slug 164 37 65 +125 +50 3% 6 6 6 5 4 3
20x70mm 20/70 5.6mm Buckshot** S 8x26 1 12 -10 +10 0% 3 3 3 3 3 3
20/70 6.2mm Buckshot** 8x22 2 13 0% 3 3 3 3 3 3
20/70 7.5mm Buckshot** 8x25 3 14 0% 3 3 3 3 3 3
20/70 7.3mm Buckshot** 9x23 3 13 +15 0% 3 3 3 3 3 3
20/70 Devastator Slug 198 5 13 +125 +30 100% 1 0 0 0 0 0
20/70 "Poleva-3" slug 120 14 35 +110 -15 20% 6 2 0 0 0 0
20/70 Star Slug 154 16 42 +130 +5 10% 6 5 1 0 0 0
20/70 "Poleva-6u" slug 135 17 40 +110 -10 15% 6 5 1 0 0 0
23x75mm 23x75mm "Zvezda" flashbang round 0 0 0 0 0 20% 0 0 0 0 0 0
23x75mm Shrapnel-25 buckshot** S 8x78 10 20 +20 +10 0% 6 4 3 3 3 3
23x75mm "Shrapnel-10" buckshot** S 8x87 11 20 0% 6 4 3 3 3 3
23x75mm "Barrikada" slug 192 39 75 -5 +25 20% 6 6 6 6 4 4
9x18mm Makarov 9x18mm PM SP8 gzh S 67 1 2 60% 15% 10% 0 0 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM SP7 gzh 77 2 5 2% 0 0 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM PSV S 69 3 5 40% 10% 0 0 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM P gzh S 50 5 16 25% 10% 2 0 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM PSO gzh S 54 5 13 +10 35% 10% 2 0 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM PS gs PPO S 55 6 16 25% 15% 3 0 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM PRS gs S 58 6 16 30% 15% 3 0 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM PPe gzh S 61 7 15 35% 15% 4 0 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM PPT gzh S T 59 8 22 -5 -7 17% 15% 5 1 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM Pst gzh S 50 12 26 20% 6 1 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM RG028 gzh S 65 13 26 2% 6 2 0 0 0 0
9x18mm PM BZhT gzh S 53 18 28 17% 15% 10% 6 5 1 0 0 0
9x18mm PMM PstM gzh 58 24 33 +5 17% 6 6 4 0 0 0
9x18mm PM PBM gzh 40 28 30 +4 16% 6 6 5 1 0 0
7.62x25mm Tokarev 7.62x25mm TT LRNPC 66 7 27 +10 -10 35% 15% 10% 5 0 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT LRN 64 8 28 +5 -5 35% 15% 10% 5 0 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT FMJ43 60 11 29 25% 6 1 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT AKBS 58 12 32 +15 -15 25% 6 2 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT P gl 58 14 32 25% 6 3 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT PT gzh T 55 18 34 -10 17% 6 4 0 0 0 0
7.62x25mm TT Pst gzh 50 25 36 20% 6 6 4 1 0 0
9x19mm Parabellum 9x19mm RIP 102 2 11 +20 100% 30% 10% 0 0 0 0 0 0
9x19mm QuakeMaker S 85 8 22 +10 +10 10% 15% 22% 6 1 0 0 0 0
9x19mm PSO gzh S 59 10 32 25% 6 2 0 0 0 0
9x19mm Luger CCI 70 10 38 25% 20% 20% 6 2 0 0 0 0
9x19mm T gzh T 58 14 33 -5 -6 15% 6 3 1 0 0 0
9x19mm Pst gzh 54 20 33 15% 6 6 2 0 0 0
9x19mm AP 6.3 52 30 48 5% 6 6 6 4 2 1
9x19mm PBP gzh 52 39 53 +5 +15 5% 6 6 6 5 4 3
.45 ACP .45 ACP RIP S 137 3 12 -5 100% 30% 20% 1 0 0 0 0 0
.45 ACP Hydra-Shok S 105 13 30 50% 30% 6 3 0 0 0 0
.45 ACP Lasermatch FMJ S T 80 19 37 +10 1% 6 5 1 0 0 0
.45 ACP Match FMJ S 76 25 36 1% 6 6 3 1 0 0
.45 ACP AP S 70 38 48 -5 +7 1% 6 6 6 5 3 2
9x21mm Gyurza 9x21mm PE gzh 80 15 63 35% 15% 10% 6 2 0 0 0 0
9x21mm P gzh 65 18 44 30% 15% 10% 6 3 0 0 0 0
9x21mm PS gzh 49 35 46 20% 6 6 6 4 3 2
9x21mm BT gzh T 63 39 47 -4 -4 20% 6 6 6 5 4 3
5.7x28mm FN 5.7x28mm R37.F 98 8 7 100% 15% 15% 4 0 0 0 0 0
5.7x28mm SS198LF 74 10 15 80% 6 1 0 0 0 0
5.7x28mm R37.X 81 11 14 70% 10% 20% 6 1 0 0 0 0
5.7x28mm SS197SR 62 20 22 50% 6 6 2 0 0 0
5.7x28mm L191 T 58 33 41 -4 20% 6 6 6 3 2 2
5.7x28mm SB193 S 54 35 37 -20 20% 6 6 6 4 3 2
5.7x28mm SS190 49 37 43 20% 6 6 6 5 4 3
4.6x30mm HK 4.6x30mm Action SX 65 18 39 50% 6 5 2 0 0 0
4.6x30mm Subsonic SX S 45 36 46 +10 -22 20% 6 6 6 5 3 2
4.6x30mm FMJ SX 43 40 41 20% 6 6 6 6 4 3
4.6x30mm AP SX 35 53 46 +10 10% 6 6 6 6 6 5
9x39mm 9x39 mm SP5 gs S 68 38 52 20% 6 6 6 5 4 3
9x39 mm SP6 gs S 58 46 60 +10 10% 6 6 6 6 5 4
9x39mm SPP gs S 64 50 56 +10 +20 20% 6 6 6 6 6 5
9x39mm BP gs S 60 55 68 +10 +22 10% 6 6 6 6 6 5
.366 TKM .366 TKM Geksa 110 14 38 45% 10% 15% 6 3 0 0 0 0
.366 TKM FMJ 98 23 48 +10 25% 6 6 4 1 0 0
.366 TKM Eko 73 30 40 -10 -15 20% 6 6 6 3 1 0
.366 TKM AP-M 90 42 60 -28 +35 1% 6 6 6 6 5 4
5.45x39mm 5.45x39mm SP 68 11 34 +10 -15 45% 10% 10% 6 1 0 0 0 0
5.45x39mm HP 74 11 20 +5 35% 15% 15% 6 1 0 0 0 0
5.45x39mm PRS gs 60 14 28 -5 30% 6 2 0 0 0 0
5.45x39mm US gs S 65 15 34 -25 10% 6 3 0 0 0 0
5.45x39mm FMJ 56 21 30 25% 6 5 1 0 0 0
5.45x39mm T gs T 57 20 38 -5 -5 16% 6 6 1 0 0 0
5.45x39mm PS gs 50 27 35 40% 6 6 4 1 0 0
5.45x39mm PP gs 48 33 32 17% 6 6 6 3 2 0
5.45x39mm BP gs 49 35 41 16% 6 6 6 4 3 1
5.45x39mm BT gs T 44 37 49 -2 +3 16% 6 6 6 5 4 3
5.45x39mm BS gs 40 51 57 -3 +10 17% 6 6 6 6 6 5
5.45x39mm PPBS gs "Igolnik" 37 62 60 +15 2% 6 6 6 6 6 6
5.56x45mm NATO 5.56x45mm Warmageddon 85 3 14 +10 +10 90% 20% 20% 1 0 0 0 0 0
5.56x45mm HP 75 9 22 70% 15% 15% 5 0 0 0 0 0
5.56x45mm MK 255 Mod 0 (RRLP) 60 17 32 3% 6 4 1 0 0 0
5.56x45mm MK 318 Mod 0 (SOST) 67 20 35 +10 15% 6 6 3 0 0 0
5.56x45mm M856 T 55 23 34 -2 -2 33% 6 6 3 1 0 0
5.56x45mm FMJ 52 24 33 +10 -5 50% 6 6 4 1 0 0
5.56x45mm M855 50 28 37 -5 40% 6 6 5 2 1 0
5.56x45mm M856A1 T 51 37 52 -1 +4 33% 6 6 6 5 4 3
5.56x45mm M855A1 46 45 52 -10 +5 34% 6 6 6 6 5 4
5.56x45mm M995 40 53 58 +8 32% 6 6 6 6 6 5
5.56x45mm SSA AP 36 56 64 -6 +6 20% 6 6 6 6 6 5
.300 Blackout .300 AAC Blackout BCP FMJ 60 29 36 30% 6 6 5 3 2 0
.300 AAC Blackout AP 55 45 65 +5 +5 30% 15% 15% 6 6 6 6 5 4
7.62x39mm 7.62x39mm HP 87 15 35 -5 26% 15% 15% 6 4 1 0 0 0
7.62x39mm US gzh S 56 29 42 +5 -30 8% 6 6 5 3 1 0
7.62x39mm T-45M1 gzh T 62 30 46 -4 -6 12% 6 6 6 3 1 0
7.62x39mm PS gzh 57 32 52 25% 6 6 6 4 3 2
7.62x39mm BP gzh 58 47 63 -3 +5 12% 6 6 6 6 5 4
7.62x39mm MAI AP 46 58 76 -5 +10 5% 10% 10% 6 6 6 6 6 5
7.62x51mm NATO 7.62x51mm Ultra Nosler 107 15 20 +10 -5 70% 20% 20% 6 4 0 0 0 0
7.62x51mm FMJ 88 31 33 -3 25% 6 6 6 2 0 0
7.62x51mm TCW SP 60 36 40 -8 -5 20% 6 6 6 5 2 0
7.62x51mm M80 80 41 66 17% 6 6 6 6 5 4
7.62x51mm M62 T 79 44 75 -6 -5 14% 6 6 6 6 5 5
7.62x51mm M61 70 64 83 +3 +10 13% 6 6 6 6 6 6
7.62x51mm M993 67 70 85 +3 +8 13% 6 6 6 6 6 6
7.62x54mmR 7.62x54R T-46M T 82 41 83 -1 -5 18% 6 6 6 6 4 3
7.62x54R LPS gzh 81 42 78 18% 6 6 6 6 4 3
7.62x54R PS 86 45 84 +10 +8 8% 6 6 6 6 5 5
7.62x54R BT gzh T 78 59 87 -2 -4 8% 6 6 6 6 6 6
7.62x54R SNB 75 62 87 +10 8% 6 6 6 6 6 6
7.62x54R BS 72 70 88 8% 6 6 6 6 6 6
.338 Lapua Magnum .338 Lapua Magnum TAC-X 196 18 55 +10 +5 50% 80% 50% 6 5 3 1 0 0
.338 Lapua Magnum UPZ 142 32 70 -5 60% 50% 40% 6 6 6 5 4 2
.338 Lapua Magnum FMJ 122 47 83 20% 35% 50% 6 6 6 6 5 5
.338 Lapua Magnum AP 115 79 89 +10 13% 20% 55% 6 6 6 6 6 6
12.7x55mm STs-130 12.7x55 mm PS12A S 165 10 22 -15 -12 70% 30% 30% 6 0 0 0 0 0
12.7x55 mm PS12 S 115 28 60 +10 30% 20% 6 6 5 2 1 0
12.7x55 mm PS12B S 102 46 57 +15 30% 6 6 6 6 5 4
40x46 mm 40x46mm M576 (MP-APERS) grenade** 15x160 5 95 0% 5 3 3 3 3 3
Stationary

Weapons

30x29 mm VOG-30*** 199 1 95 0% 0 0 0 0 0 0
12.7x108 mm B-32 gl 182 88 88 17% 6 6 6 6 6 6
12.7x108 mm BZT-44M gzh T 199 80 95 17% 6 6 6 6 6 6
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